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The lysergic amides as found in our crop are tied up in the plant
material in association with acidic substances. To get the amides to
extract out in a solvent, this salt must be free-based. There are two
preferred solvent and basing agent combinations. Choice number one is
used in the USP procedure. This combination is ammonia as the
free-basing agent in a solvent of chloroform. The other preferred
combination was used extensively in Europe. This combination used
MgO (magnesia) as the basing agent with a solvent of ethyl ether or
benzene. There have been comparisons of the two methods, and the
European variation gives an extraction that is about 25% more
complete than the USP method. It is, however, not nearly as practical
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as the USP method for large-scale extractions because it would be
necessary to dump the crop out of the extraction pipes, and then grind
the solid MgO into an intimate mixture with the crop prior to
extraction with ether. The USP method allows the much simpler
procedure that follows:
The extraction solvent is made up by adding one-tenth gallon
strong ammonia (28% NH3OH; 56% NHtOH) to nine-tenths gallon
methanol. After mixing, this is added to nine gallons of chloroform to
give 10 gallons of extraction solvent. The use of methanol is
necessary because without it the ammonia does not mix into the
chloroform. Instead, it would float on top of the chloroform giving an
The extraction is done by trickling this extraction solvent into the
top of the bed of crop, allowing it to flow downward through the crop,
and collecting the extract as it flows out the bottom of the pipe. This
extract must be protected from light to prevent its destruction. The
extraction of a 200 pound crop requires about 150 gallons of solvent.
One can monitor the extraction by catching a little bit of the solvent
coming out the bottom of the pipes in a watch glass, and shining a
black light upon it in a darkened room. The lysergic amides in the
crop fluoresce a bluish color. When this color no longer appears in the
extract, the extraction is complete.
Next, the approximately 150 gallons of solvent must be
evaporated down to a more convenient amount. If one's crop was not so
bountiful as 200 pounds, this is a lot simpler, and can be done in
laboratory glassware. For a large crop, a more industrial approach
must be taken. The two main precautions to prevent damage to the
product are the same in either case. The evaporation must be done
with a vacuum, so that the product is not exposed to heating above 40° C
(105° F), and the product must not be exposed to light.
To evaporate the large industrial quantity of solvent, a 55-gallon
steel drum is filled about two-thirds full of the extraction solvent. On According to a pep-selling website: “Taking more than the recommended dosage will cause side effects typical of ATS drugs” (Amphetamine-Type Stimulants) R. Gordon Wasson, the famed ethnobotanist who introduced psilocybe mushrooms to western society, was also the first to personally describe an experience with Salvia divinorum. In July of 1961 he participated in a healing ceremony performed by a Mazatecan curandera. Wasson ingested the squeezed juice of 34 pairs of leaves, and described the results as "coming on sooner (than the mushrooms), being less sweeping, and lasting a shorter time. It did not go beyond the initial effects of the mushrooms - dancing colors in elaborate, three- dimensional designs." In 1962 Wasson was joined in Oaxaca by Swiss pharmacologist Albert Hofmann, inventor of LSD, who also first isolated psilocybin from mushrooms gathered in this same region. Hofmann brought an alcohol extract of Salvia divinorum back to Switzerland where he attempted to isolate the active component. He was unsuccessful, finding the extract to no longer be active, and suggested that the plant's active principal was unstable.
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